- under the fence
- around the church
- running to the store
- preaching Christ
- After we won the race
- Before Carl started preaching
- I love fish.
In English, there are four basic kinds of phrases;
- gerund (always substantival),
- participle (always adjectival),
- infinitive (can be substantival, adjectival, or adverbial), and
- prepositional phrase (can be adjectival or adverbial).
The first three are also called verbals.