ην τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόνWhy is φως nominative?
αληθινον is an adjective meaning “true”
ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον, ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον.
ὃ is the relative pronoun. Since it refers here to a person, use “who” not “which” or “that”.
this verb means he gives light
means “all” or “every”. It is an adjective modifying ανθρωπον. What case must they both be?
See all the forms of πας.
ερχομενον means “coming”.
Know the evolution of ερχομενον:
This participle is anarthrous which means it might be adjectival or adverbial. Here it is adjectival, but what noun is being modified? This is difficult because, simply by its spelling, it can be either nominative or accusative (again use the article paradigm to help parse).
|If ερχομενον is nominative…||If ερχομενον is accusative…|
|…then this participle modifies the relative pronoun ὃ||…then this participle modifies ἄνθρωπον|
|There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man. (NASB)||That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. (KJV)|
|It is the light which is coming into the world.||It is the man which is coming into the world.|
ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν
καὶ ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
The verb εγνω is from γινωσκω; cf BBG page 201. This verb is also quite irregular so don’t sweat the details. Do note the augment, which at least helps you narrow this verb down to either an aorist or an imperfect (there are no imperfects of γινωσκω in the NT). Here’s its evolution:
γινωσκ- the present stem
γνω- the aorist stem; optional: see MBG for why these changes
εγνω add the augment
εγνω add the verb ending (there is no ending for the third, singular; secondary endings; see here or BBG p. 352)
εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον
εἰς τὰ ἴδια
Does εις here have a spatial meaning or advantage? (GGBB 369) You can only make this decision by analyzing the context and deciding which meaning best fits this context. εις is the preposition. What is the OP?Is this phrase adjectival or adverbial? What word is modified? ιδια means “his own” Why is ιδια accusative?
ηλθεν is from ερχομαι.
καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβονNotice that ιδιοι is nominative. Why? αυτον is accusative. Why?
λαμβαν- present tense stem
λαβ- aorist tense stem (since it differs from the present stem, it is a second aorist)
παραλαβ add the preposition to make the compound verb
παρελαβ add the augment
παρελαβο add the connecting vowel
παρελαβον add the verb ending (note: simply by its spelling, it could be either first singular or third plural)