case ending

Greek has:

  1. first declension;
  2. second declension;
  3. third declension.

The case endings, are the endings which enable the reader to distinguish between these different declensions.

Master Case Ending Chart

First/Second Declension

Third declension

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masc/Fem

Neuter

Nominative sing.

ς

ν

ς

-[1]

Genitive sing.

υ[2]

ς

υ

ος

ος

Dative sing.

ι[3]

ι

ι

ι[4]

ι

Accusative sing.

ν

ν

ν

α/ν[5]

α

Nominative pl.

ι

ι

α

ες

α[6]

Genitive pl.

ων

ων

ων

ων

ων

Dative pl.

ις

ις

ις

σι(ν)[7]

σι(ν)

Accusative pl.

υς[8]

ς

α

ας[9]

α


[1] Be prepared for the final stem letter to undergo changes (rule 8).

[2] The ending is actually omicron, which contracts with the final stem vowel and forms ου (rule 5).

[3] The vowel lengthens (rule 5) and the iota subscripts (rule 4).

[4] Because third declension stems end in a consonant, the iota cannot subscript as it does in the first and second declensions; so it remains on the line (“iota adscript“).

[5] The case ending alternates between alpha and nu.

[6] As opposed to the first and second declensions, this alpha is an actual case ending and not a changed stem vowel. This is also true in the accusative plural.

[7] The nu is a movable nu. Notice that the ending σι is a flipped version of ις found in the first and second declensions.

[8] The actual case ending for the first and second declensions is νς, but the nu drops out because of the following sigma. In the first declension the alpha simply joins with the sigma (ωρα + νς = ωρας), but in the second declension the final stem omicron lengthens to ου (rule 5; λογονς à  λογος à λογους).

[9] As opposed to the first declension (e.g., ωρα), the alpha here is part of the case ending.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email