Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας.
Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετοHow do you know that λογος is the subject and not σαρξ? What kind of conjunction is και?
See the evolution of ἐσκήνωσεν:
This is a prepositional phrase. What part of speech is εν? What is the OP (cf. here)? Is the phrase adverbial or adjectival? What word does it modify? Which of the adverbial/adjectival questions is being answered?
καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ
δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός
πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας.
It is a good idea to learn how to use MBG. Here’s how:
- First, you need to find the lexical form of the word you are analyzing. The lexical form of χάριτος is χαρις. MBG gives n3c(1) as the code for this noun (see the index in the back). If you go to MBG p. 194, you’ll see the paradigm. This will help you parse it. Compare this with the case endings.
- The lexical form of ἀληθείας is αληθεια. MBG gives its code as n-1a. You’ll find the information for these nouns on page 168 of MBG.
Ἰωάννης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων·
μαρτυρεῖWhat is the squiggly line over the iota in μαρτυρει? A circumflex often indicates that a contraction has occurred.
Notice the reduplication.
οὗτος ἦν ὃν εἰπον·
ἦν is from ειμι.
- Notice that the gender and number of ον agree with ουτος since that is what it modifies (BBG 14.9).
- Notice that that case of ον reflects the fact that it is the the object of ειπον. (BBG 14.10)
ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθεν μου γέγονεν,
Understand the difference between direct and indirect discourse.
ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος
Since it is articular, it must be adjectival; and hence, either attributive or substantival. Here it is substantival, “the One Who comes…” Since it is substantival, it must be functioning as a noun. Here it is the subject of γεγονεν.
οπισω μου is modifying ερχομενος.
ἔμπροσθεν μουWhat part of speech is εμπροσθεν? What is the OP?
ὅτι πρῶτος μου ἦν.
Another dependent clause. οτι can actually be either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Sometimes, it means “because…” (a subordinating conjunction). Other times, it means “that…” (a relative pronoun). Only the context can decide. Here, it is likely a subordinating conjunction. Hence, the dependent clause is adverbial and modifies γεγονεν.