Common Figures of Speech

I. Figures emphasizing comparisons

A. Simile

B. Metaphor

II. Figures involving association

A. Metonymy

B. Synecdoche

III. Figures stressing personal dimension

A. Personification

B. Apostrophe

IV. Figures demanding additions

A. Ellipsis (various specific categories)

B. Zeugma

C. Constructio prægnans

D. Aposiopesis

V. Figures involving understatement

A. Euphemism

B. Litotes or Meiosis

VI. Figures involving intensification or reversal

A. Hyperbole

B. Irony

C. Hendiadys

VII. Figures involving fullness

A. Epizeuxis

B. Pleonasm

C. Paronomasia