Every word that begins with a vowel or a dipthong must have a breathing mark, rough or smooth. The rough breathing mark over an initial vowel or dipthong indicates that the word begins with an “h” sound. The smooth breathing mark indicates that there is no “h” sound and pronunciation is not affected. An initial rho or upsilon (ρ, υ) will have a rough breathing mark (υἱός, ῥῆμα).
ὑ pronounced “who”
ἐ normal pronunciation.